1.Turn sth upside down
a)to make a place very untidy when you are looking for something
b)to cause a lot of change and confusion in a situation or in
The burglars have turned our house upside down.
The chairs were placed upside down on the tables.
something that is completely the opposite of what you believe in
His political viewswere anathema tome.
【反】panegyric（n 颂词）；blessing（n 祝福）”
someone who has been elected to an official position, especially in
politics, and who is doing that job at the present time
A word of caution must be mentioned to
**it is incumbent upon/on sb to do sth=it is your duty or
responsibility to do it**
It is incumbent upon parents to control what their children watch on
If you say that something is pricey, you mean that it is expensive.
This restaurant is a
continuing or existing for a long time, or happening again and again
Lack of resources has been aperennial problemsince the
Teddy bears are aperennial favoritewith children
a supply of something, especially a product or crop, that is more than
a glut of oil on the world market
If there is a glut of something, there is so much of it that it cannot
all be sold or used. 供过于求；供应过多
Soldiers returning from the war had glutted the job market.
同义词:abundance, excess, plenty,superfluity, surplus.
very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or decoration
In the cold dawn light, the castle looked stark and forbidding.
the stark beauty of New Mexico
unpleasantly clear and impossible to avoid
The extreme poverty of the local people is instark contrastto
the wealth of the tourists.
We are faced with a stark choice.
causing problems and preventing something from continuing in its usual
Night work can be verydisruptive tohome life.
Mike’s parents thought I wasa disruptive influence(=a person
who causes disruption) .
can easily ruin a class. 爱捣乱的学童
an intermittent fault in a machine.机器的间歇性故障。
同义词: irregular,occasional,periodic, recurrent, sporadic.
freshened all the earth.
sporadic distribution 不规则分布
a)if an industry, company, activity etc is in the doldrums, it is
not doing well or developing
in the doldrums
The property market has beenin the doldrumsfor months.
Recenteconomic doldrumshave damaged the rural west.
Despite these measures, the economy remains in the doldrums.
b)if you are in the doldrums, you are feeling sad
He’s been in the doldrums ever since she left him.
an internal-combustion内燃机 engine that burns heavy oil
12.Be insulated from
We are not insulated from the real world the way we were.
Children should be carefully insulated from harmful experiences
13.Subsidyfosterdeployment of renewables; renewablesdepresspower
prices, increasing the need for financial support. 这片独动词用之好可以！
Explorers penetrated deep into unknown regions.
A shrill cry penetrated the silence.
He penetrated their thoughts.
if one of a company’s products cannibalizes another, it takes sales
away from it 互相残杀，调配人手
Coke then believed that selling a diet soda under the Coke label
If you shy away from doing something, you avoid doing it, often
because you are afraid or not confident enough.
We frequentlyshy away frommaking decisions.
Alan doesn’tshy away from controversy.
同义：shun from….retreated from…
starting to happen or exist
She felt for him anincipienttenderness, but scarcely any passion.
dangerously high or steep,very sudden
*a precipitous decline**in stock prices/ one’s health*
a precipitous marriage
The town is perched on the edge of a steep, precipitous cliff.
同义词:abrupt, perpendicular, sharp, sheer, steep,vertical.
to help someone to feel better and more positive,to improve
Britain is free to adopt policies tobolster its economy.
Inflation began to nibble away at their savings.
His teeth having all dropped out, he could only nibble away at his
These high levels of inequalityerodesocial cohesion in the
The sea haveerodethe cliff face over the years
continuing without becoming any weaker or less violent
The stormcontinued unabatedthroughout the night.
his unabated ambition
The fighting has continued unabated for over 24 hours.
the business of selling goods in large quantities at low prices to
other businesses, rather than to the general public
wholesale prices批发价—-retail price 零售价
- Buck the trend抵抗这种势头
to oppose something in a direct way
He was a rebel who
continuallybuckedthesystem(=opposed rules or
Unemployment in the area hasbuckedthe nationaltrendby
falling over the last month.
Initially he had bucked against her restraints.
Moving house is amajor upheaval.
1.Very much the exception, not the rule rule这里是正规的，常见的
2.uaccount for = take up
keep up! way to go!加油啊！目标快实现了！
it goes a long way to…+n/动名词，to achieving you
formalnot as important as other things or people in a particular
activity, idea, or situation次要的
a diplomat who hada peripheral rolein the negotiations
Her involvement in the case was peripheral.
The romanceis peripheral tothe main plot of the movie.
formalin the outer area of something, or relating to this area外围的
the city’s peripheral suburbs
the peripheral nervous system
The storyline was too far-fetched and none of the actors was
There is $20trn hitch来只市值20万亿底豁口
a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it for a
In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a success.
The whole showwent without a hitch.
Smog-belching power plant
Put the brake on ….停止..对…加以延缓，缩减，限制
The goverment put the brake on all over our plans by giving us less
- Cut back减少;裁剪
Subsidies are cut back.
We must cut back on expenditure in order to remain
10. Prime the pumpfor new
to encourage a business, industry, or activity to develop by putting
money or effort into it
to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way
The economy is showingsigns of faltering.My mother’s grip
upon the household neverfaltered.
to speak in a voice that sounds weak and uncertain, and keeps stopping
Laurie’svoice falteredas she tried to thank him.
‘I can’t,’ she faltered.声音颤抖
to become less certain and determined that you want to do something
We must not falter in our resolve.犹豫，动摇
to stop walking or to walk in an unsteady way because you suddenly
feel weak or afraid
She faltered for a moment.蹒跚
if an engine or vehicle stalls, or if you stall it, it stops because
there is not enough power or speed to keep it going
The car kept stalling.
An inexperienced pilot may easily stall a plane.
to stop making progress or developing
The peace process remained stalled.
While his career has stalled, hers has taken off.
- Smooth out(解决…问题)
We will be able to smooth out our
Smart batteries in those vehicles would be among the resources used to
store electricity at times of low demand and release it during peaks,
helping and release it during peaks, helping tosmooth outthe
supply across the
too slight or unimportant to have any effect
The damage done to his property was negligible.
In comparison with the disastrous damage made by the earthquake, my
personal loss is negligible.
to reduce or limit something缩短; 剥夺（特权，官衔等）; 削减;
The new law will curtail police powers.
Budget cuts have drastically curtailed training programs.
something that is the direct result of something
Is social inequality the inevitable corollary of economic freedom?