Day10笃学奖–Topic3–甘比精读-B17452

Vocabulary :

  1. A world turned upside down :  历史及闹只同名的英国民歌“the world
    turned upside down”,世界颠倒了

2.renewable energy : 可再生资源  : are natural energy sources
such as wind, water, and sunlight which are always available.

3.utility: N. A utility is an important service such as water,
electricity, or gas that is provided for everyone, and that everyone
pays for.公用事业

4.financed by: 由..提供成本之When someone finances something such
as a project or a purchase, they provide the money that is needed to
pay for them.

E.g. Government expenditure is financed by taxation and by
borrowing.政征开支靠征税款和借款来保障。

5.blanketed with :v. 覆盖,遮住、If something such as snow
blankets in area, it covers it.

6.Photovoltaic (PV)adj.光电池的 producing a voltage when exposed
to radiant energy (especially light)

http://www.seia.org/policy/solar-technology/photovoltaic-solar-electric

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7.biogas: [不可数名词] gas, especially methane , that is
produced by dead plants and that can be burned to produce heat
沼气(由死亡植物产生的甲烷等可燃气体)

8.solar generators: 太阳能发电机

9.pocketed:v. to earn or win an amount of money 挣;赚下

E.g. Last year, she pocketed over $1 million in advertising contracts.

10:subsidy:(pl. -ies)  [可数名词, 不可数名词] money that is paid
by a government or an organization to reduce the costs of services or
of producing goods so that their prices can be kept low
补贴;补助金;津贴  E.g.  to reduce the level of subsidy 降低补贴规范

11.surplus: adj. ~ (to sth) more than is needed or used
过剩的;剩余的;多余的

E.g. These items are surplus to requirements (= not needed) .
这几桩非需要

12.anathema:[不可数名词, 可数名词, 常用单数形式](formal) a thing
or an idea which you hate because it is the opposite of what you
believe 可憎的物;可恶的想法

E.g. Violence was anathema to them. 他们本着暴力深恶痛绝。

13.the fossil-fuel age =the fossil-fuel-era化石燃料时

  1. utilityrevenues: 公用事业收入, N. [不可数名词] ( also
    revenues [复数]) the money that a government receives from taxes or
    that an organization, etc. receives from its business
    财政收入;税收收入;收益Synonyms: receipts

15.incumbents:a person who has an official position 在职者;现任者

E.g.the present incumbent of the White House 现任美国总统

16:decabonise: vt.remove carbon from (an engine) 除碳
 decarbonising

17.disruptive : adj.causing problems, noise, etc. so that sth
cannot continue normally 引起混乱的;扰乱性的;破坏性的  E.g. She had
a disruptive influence on the rest of the
class.她搅扰了趟上另的学生。

18.poured: v. 涌向,流入, 在此为短语pour sth into sth : to
provide a large amount of money for sth 向…投入大量金钱;大量入股给
 E.g.
The government has poured millions into the education
system. 政府当教育上曾经投资数百万。

关联:pour sth out:  to express your feelings or give an account
of sth, especially after keeping them or it secret or hidden
毫无保留地发表情愫(或考虑等);表露无遗;畅所欲言  E.g. She poured
out her troubles to me over a cup of
coffee.她一方面喝着咖啡,一面往自家倾吐着它的烦乱。——related
nounoutpouring

19.pricey: adj.(pricier, priciest)   (informal) expensive 昂贵的

20.Robust:adj. (of a system or an organization 体制还是单位) strong
and not likely to fail or become weak 强劲的;富有生机之 E.g. robust
economic growth 强劲的经济提高

21.emissions trading scheme:
欧洲碳排放交易系统(方案),是社会风气上先是个多国参与的下交易系统。是欧盟以实现《国都议定书》确立的二氧化碳压缩下的目标,而于2005年立之气象政策体系,它以《京都议定书》下的减排目标分配给各成员国,参与EU
ETS之列,必须符合欧盟温室气体撂下交易指令的确定,并以行京都减量承诺,以及减量分担磋商作为靶子,执行诸所管排放源温室气体排放量核配之规划工作。再由各国成员国因国家分配计划分配给各级企业,以实现2008年交2012年温室气体排放量比1990年裁减8%之目标。各局经过技术升级、改造等伎俩,达到了滑坡二氧化碳排放的要求,可以以故非结束的排放权卖于其它未成功裁减下目标的营业所。整体EU
ETS所覆盖范围包括12000基本上幢电站、工厂和另外工业装备,几乎占欧盟二氧化碳排放总量之一半。是全世界最深的碳排放总量控制以及交易系统。

  1. hopes spring eternal 希望永远

23.perennial:adj.  continuing for a very long time; happening
again and again 长久的;持续的;反复起的  E.g. the perennial problem
of water shortage 缺水之一直问题

24. a revenue-neutral economy-wide carbon tax:收入中性经济宽碳税

25. marginal cost :N. the increase or decrease in costs as a
result of one more or one less unit of output 边际成本

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marginal_cost

In economics,marginal costis the change in the opportunity
cost that
arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is,
it is
the cost of
producing one more unit of a good.

在经济学和金融学遭受,边际成本(marginal
cost)指的凡各级一样单位新增加养的产品(或者买之出品)带过来总成本的增量。

本条定义表明各一样单位之活之成本及总产品量有关。比如,仅生产一样部汽车之工本是最为巨大的,而生育第101部汽车之资产就没有得几近,而生第10000汽车的资金就再次小了(这是为亚洲城ca88手机版下载地址范围经济)。

但是,考虑到机会成本,随着生产量的加,边际资金也许会见多。还是这个事例,生产新的一模一样部汽车经常,所用之材料或出再次好之用,所以只要尽量用最为少的资料生产发生无限多之车,这样才能够提高疆收益。

鄂成本以及单位平均资产无一样,单位平均资产考虑了通之出品,而边际资金忽略了最后一个产品前的。例如,每部汽车之平分资产包括生产第一辆车之充分十分之固定成本(在各个部车上进行分配)。而边际资金从未考虑固定成本。

每当数学及,边际成本(MC,marginal
cost)用总成本(TC,total
cost)和数目(Q,quantity)的偏导数来表示:

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27.at first blush: 乍一看

28.intermittent: adj. stopping and starting often over a period of
time, but not regularly 断断续续的;间歇的  Synonyms :sporadic    
E.g. intermittent bursts of applause一阵阵的掌声

28.in the doldrums: 意气消沉; 无精打采; 萧条; <口>意气消沉;

29.a vicious circle:恶性循环 e.g. His increasingly visible chagrin
sets up a vicious circle他的引人注目的遗憾引起了同样栽恶性循环.

30.deployment:deploy的派生名词。原V(formal) to use sth
effectively 有效地行使;调动

to deploy arguments/resources 用论据 / 资源

31.far-fetched : very difficult to believe 难以置信的;牵强的

E.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.
整个叙述听起十分怀疑。

32.monopolies: the complete control of trade in particular goods
or a service that is controlled in this way 垄断,专营服务

33.splurge: n.v. an act of spending a lot of money on sth that you
do not really need. 乱花钱,挥霍

34.prime the pump : v. to encourage the growth of a new or weak
business or industry by putting money into it.
投资为振兴(新的要经济效益不好的产业)

  1. stagnating : v. to stop developing or making progress
     停滞,不发展,不进步

  2. vagary : changes in sb/sth that are difficult to predict or
    control . 奇思暇想,异想天开,变幻莫测

  3. notwithstanding: despite sth 虽然,尽管

**31-37 出自另一样首延伸文 “clean energy’s dirty secret” **


mindmap:

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一头栽上经济学人里没有爬起,也未思出去。
情愿这样讲述这几乎天的状态。其实效仿渣如我呢不怕是率先次于认真研讨了经济学人的星星点点篇稿子而已,再添加安妮菌的执教,发现它是这样好之教材。言归正传,回顾这点儿天文章的保洁精华,基本上刷新了自身本着新能源的认识,也是之前十分少关心这些的由来。

开赛引入的针对德国小镇的叙述,风克太阳能生物能轮流转,确实清洁环保如厮的生活能源循环状态为丁对如此的开心农场浮想联翩:我而在在这么的社会风气就吓了。

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美妙很完美,现实非常复杂。依靠政府政策资金支持起来的初能源(风能/太阳能,这里最主要依靠)发展与市面的结还是个就该提高了快如益发矛盾的是:原有的倚重燃料燃供电的市场直接以经营资金居高不下,利用免费资源(风,太阳)的可再生资源注入了特别的因素,且产生空子让人们用到更有利的电能。当越来越多之免费资源铺展开来经常,就打了原本市场,将电价降得重新没有,甚至发潜力以足够的能源供应能力用原能源挤出市场。从环保角度来拘禁,这当应该是好之,但市场无法承受。因经营不欲有些成本,让可再生能源有原始的价格优势,可以卖得死没有,整体拉低市场供电的标价时,相对之前,经营店铺净利润越来越少。当朝没有再次多的基金(旧能源成本高,电价变低,电力企业总收入变少了,纳税额也应和会稍,影响朝财政来源应该也是因素之一)来展开可再生能源的核心设备建设时,这时新能源只有收纳私人投资才会提高得重好,但有利可图是每个人乐意投资至新类型之着力诱因。如果完全利润随着价格之低落越来越少,还有哪位愿意来投资新能源的基础建设?
所以文章尖锐指出了问题所在,新能源发展得更为充分,将团结之后援之路也郁闷得更加怪(“It
eats its own tail”).

题材来预兆时将未雨绸缪地怀念缓解的策,作者列举了有经久之艺术,比如电力企业组成储电能力,铺开足够深的电网来缓解远渴(当近水少时),足够智能的电网能调节供求关系等等。另一样首相关文章将方分析得更清,也毫不留情地指出了政府内阁的一律多重误策。正使原文说,policymakers
should be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
energy , but the out-of -date system of electricity pricing. Then they
should fix it. 

错的不是可再生能源本身,而是政策。

本人忽然想起就前少上看底讯息,说之是以一如既往切开集中的太阳能电板集中区域,上空飞过的鸟类被烧死。
对阳光光能的汇集聚焦提高了所控范围之圆热度,以致飞禽致死。这应是针对资源利用的任何一个绝了咔嚓。

坐自己少的人生经验及胆识,此刻起了新祝词,愿你终能拥有维尔德波尔茨里德式生活。享受太阳与氛围及马上自由的民歌,且不要愧疚于自然和后人,不应是两全其美的状态也?