Day 8:Vocabulary and expressions

  1. disrupt:to interrupt or throw something into disorder

1)break someone’s concentration

If you don’t turn your phone off before a play, it might ring and
disrupt the actors and the audience.

2)break up a routine

The bad weather disrupts the travel plans of people in airports.

3)A larger interruption would be if a war were to erupt. That would
disrupt the peace of an entire region and its people.

  1. issue的动词义

v. put something out for the public

issue a statement, the post office issues new stamps

<Annie讲解补充> issue(发出) a Bond villain’s(007的对头)

  1. Kinds of gadgets to generate renewable energy

1)turbine:uses the power of  a flowing liquid or wind to move a
wheel, thereby generating energy, like a water wheel or a windmill.

2)Photovoltaic(PV) solar panels

The south-facing roofs of the houses, barns and cowsheds are
blanketed with blue photovoltaic(PV) solar panels.

photovoltaic:producing a voltage when exposed to radiant energy
(especially light)

展开阅读:How solar PV works

Your solar PV system will consist of solar panels, an inverter(an
electrical converter that converts direct current into alternating
current 直流变交换电) and a generation meter(measuring
instruments). When light hits the silicon cells in your solar panels,
electrical energy is created. This electricity then flows through a
cable and is collected at a central point (usually located in your

Here the electricity is converted from DC to AC current and is carried
on into your household electricity system. The electricity you
generate works using your existing circuitry(electronic equipment
consisting of a system of circuits) to help power household
appliances and lighting.

  1. blanket


n. anything that covers:a blanket of leaves/snow

v. cover as if with a blanket

fog blankets the whole town, snow blankets the fields

The south-facing roofs of the houses, barns and cowsheds are
blanketed with blue photovoltaic(PV) solar panels.

  1. The cows on the green fields produce manure that generates biogas
    which warms the town, as well as backing up the wind and solar
    generators in winter.

manure:a fertilizer made from animal waste

bio瓦斯:瓦斯, especially methane, that is produced by dead plants and
that can be burned to produce heat 芳香烃等可燃气体

back up:provide support for sb/sth

two doctors backed up by a team of nurses

  1. they pocketed about seven billion dollars from subsidies and
    selling their surplus electricity.


1)put in one’s pocket:He pocketed the change without counting it.

2)earn money:She pocketed over one million dollars in advertising

subsidy:a financial assistance usually granted by a government to an
enterprise that benefits the public

offer a subsidy to low-income families for book fees and lunch

subsidies for investment 帮衬公司,让他们得以入股

their growth might soon need a lot less subsidy than it has
attracted to date(until now).

was generously subsidised

  1. And the things it is based on– subsidies for investment, very little
    spending on fuel, and moving electricity generation to the edge of, or
    , the grid— are anathema to electricity markets and
    business models developed for the fossil-fuel age.



1)a network of intersecting parallel lines

Most American streets are laid out in a grid pattern

2)a physical network of sorts

The national grid:the high voltage electrical cables that carry power
throughout the country 电网

transmission grid 输电网


moving electricity generation to the edge of, or off, the grid


They had brought the country to the edge of diaster


off the grid玩消失

They say he went off the grid. 隐居

He wanted some place that was completely off the grid. 远离尘嚣

fall off the grid:disappear from the face of the earth

Where is Tommy? I haven’t seen him for weeks and he seems to have
fallen off the grid.

anathema:a thing or an idea which you hate because it is the
opposite of what you believe

<回想>:aerobic exercise有氧运动,anaerobic 厌氧

Racial prejudice is (an) anathema to me.

Violence was anathema to them.

Garlic is anathema to vampires.

A silver bullet is anathema to a werewolf.

  1. Few greens would mourn them.

mourn:feel sadness

mourn the loss of a beloved pet.

  1. utility:of practical use

public utilities:government facilities that provide water,
electricity and natural gas

the fall in utility revenues

  1. incumbent:

1)adj. currently holding an office:the incumbent governor/mayor

2)adj. necessary (for someone) as a duty or responsibility:

It is incumbent upon you to do the dishes.

It is incumbent upon all users of this equipment to familiarize.

3)n. the official who holds an office

fossil-fuel-era incumbents in the generation and transmission

  1. decarbonise:remove carbon from (an engine)

their(the renewables) efforts to decarbonise the electricity
supply/grid that justified their promotion in the first place.

  1. 动词词组:

1)write off:to cancel a debt, to recognize that sth is a failure,
has no value 资金财产折损,价格稳中有降了,不值那么些钱

to write off a debt/ an investment

write off 120bn dollars of assets

2)split in two:The country nearly split in two after the war.

3)add… to…:add new sources of supply to an already well-served

4)shut out of:prevent sb/sth from entering…

such plants are shut out of the market by low-cost renewables.

sunglasses that shut out 99% of the sun’s harmful rays

shut sb out of the bedroom/ one’s life

5)drag down prices

6)eat into:use up a part of sth, especially money or time

If something eats into your time or your resources, it uses them,
when they should be used for other things.

when used by customers, they also eat into demand.


7)take account of:consider sth

take account of environmental issues

  1. 发挥积累:


1), at which point the process will still be far from finished

2)国家在某领域当先地位:with … taking the lead.

3)例外:… is the exception, not the rule(规律).

4)未来还有非常长的路要走:In terms of … there is a  long way to go.

5)随之带来了哪些震慑:a decade of sudsidy-driven growth has brought
with it
falling costs.

6)实际上:in practice

Prisoners have legal rights, but in practice these rights are not
always respected.

7)more or less=almost

are needed more or less at times when the sun doesn’t shine…


… could go a long way to(=help) solving this problem.

… — all have their champions and their role to play

But long-run solutions do not solve short-term constraints.

The response to these problems is not to abandon renewables.

Thinking of… as a solution by themselves is not enough. You need
flexibility on the other side.

9)说到缺点:renewables are insulted from the effects that their
low marginal costs have on prices.

10)流行,广泛推广:increase renewables’ penetration

getting renewables to today’s relatively modest level of penetration


In part that is to…. In part it is because…

… It is one of the reasons– … is another– why…

12)对…的影响:the effect that … have on…

But peer pressure is unlikely to be decisive.

13)问题仍不了解:But how… and who … remain obscure.


1)hit investiment 打击投资

2)at first blush=at first glance

If renewables worked constantly that would not, at first blush,
look like a problem

3)moderate the fluctuations

4)<口语> “You are so yesterday”你太老土了

5)give little thought to=consider

  1. 关于金钱:

1)Renewables are still on the pricey(adj. having a high price)
side, but they are getting less so.

2)robust carbon prices

3)关于投资的多寡:require …in investment

pourinto(前面加指标)supporting the investment

4)返回款:provide … to every family of four in rebates.


demand is in decline

wholesale electricity prices collapse

drag down/ push down prices

prices slumped from … to …

depress power prices/ wages

slash costs/prices/fares

turn negative变成负数

  1. The EU’s emissions-trading scheme is a perennial
    disappointment: still, hope springs eternal, as witness a recent
    attempt to persuade the new American administration of the
    benefits of a revenue-neutral economy-wide carbon tax to providing
    2000 dollars to every family of four in rebates.

Emission trading:

<Wikipedia> Emissions trading or cap and trade is a
government-mandated, market-based approach to controlling pollution by
providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the
emissions of pollutants.

perennial:describes things that are permanent, constant, or

<回忆:”per-” means each, “annus” means year

a perennial conflict/ argument

the perennial problem of water shortage

Hope springs eternal:(saying) people never stop hoping

I don’t think I’ll get the job, but hope springs eternal.


Taxing procedure that allows the government to still receive the same
amount of money despite changes in tax laws. The government may lower
taxes for one particular group of people, but raise taxes for another
group. This allows the revenue that they receive to remain


群里的解答:involving the whole of a country’s economy

Employment in services fell by 50,000 last month, contributing to the
slight rise in the economy-wide unemplyment rate.

rebate:a partial refund of the cost of an item

If your new cell phone came with a rebate, you’ll get a check in the
mail for a certain amount of the cost.

A well-known rebate occurred in 2007 when President George Bush issued
tax rebate checks to many people in America, giving back some of what
each person paid in taxes.

provide … to every family of four in rebates.

  1. In rich countries governments have imposed renewables on elecricity
    systems that had no need for new capacity, because demand is in
    decline. Investment in supply beyond what the market required has
    produced gluts and pushed down prices. In America this has been
    masked by the shale-gas revolution, which has caused a bigger
    shift in the same direction.



1)the amount something can hold:the bird cage is at full

Grids with lots of storage capacity built in

2)your ability to do something:

Limited resources are restricting our capacity for developing new

3)the capcity of something such as a factory, industry or region is
the quantity of things that it can produce./ the capcity to produce

The factory is working at full capacity— that means at full speed,
producing as much as they possibly can.

keep older fossil-fuel capacity available as a standby


1)n. a situation in which there is more of sth than is needed or can
be used

a glut of cheap videos on the market

2)v. to supply or provide sth with too much of sth

The market has been glutted with foreign cars.

Shale gas:

Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale
formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich
sources of petroleum and natural gas.



Shale-gas revolution:



  1. In Europe the glut of renewables is more starkly seen for
    what it is.


1)complete or extreme:stark poverty,a stark contrast

2)providing no shelter or sustenance:

a stark landscape

3)looking severe and without any colour or decoration

The hills stood stark against the winter sky.

4)unpleasant, real and impossible to avoid

The remains of the building stand as a stark reminder of the fire.

He now faces the stark reality of life in prison.

  1. Wholesale electricity prices have slumped from 80 a
    megawatt-hour in 2008 to 30 nowadays.

wholesale:describe something that’s done on a big, broad scale

1)adj. describe something that’s done on a big, broad scale

wholesale changes,wholesale destruction,wholesale slaughter

2)v. to sell things in bulk, usually to someone who is going to sell
it again at a higher retail price. 批发

the wholesale price vs. the retail price

megawatt:a unit of power equal to one million watts

  1. havoc:widespread disorder or destruction.

The result has been havoc for the old-style utilities.

  1. indebted:If you’re indebted to someone you are indeed in
    — for either money or gratitude.

indebeted and loss-making generation

  1. In an industry structured around marginal costs, renewables have
    a disruptive punch above their weight.


structured around (核心)marginal costs







Annie的教学:punch above their weight 超越他的实力

to achieve or perform at a higher level than would be expected based
on one’s preparation, attributes, rank, or past accomplishment.

雅思口语加分词组:punch above one’s weight

The term ‘punch above one’s weight’ means performing or achieving
results better than expected and beyond one’s ability, skill,
experience etc.

“Although Brad isn’t the best track runner, I think that if he trains
hard and punches above his weight, he’ll be able to qualify for the
upcoming competition.”

  1. deregulate:to take away the rules

When someonede regulates a soccer game, the game could become a
muddy wrestling match without any rules to keep things on track.

  1. Electricity markets typically work on a “merit order“: at any
    given time they meet demand by taking electricity first from the
    cheapest supplier, then the next-cheapest until they have all they need;
    the price paid to all concerned is set by the most expensive source in
    use at the time.



The Merit Order of a process indicates the order in which it will
be dispatched(sent off).

Processes with the lowest value merit order are dispatched first (base
load) and those with the highest merit order are dispatched last (peak
load). Processes with equal merit order are dispatched together in
proportion to their available capacity.

  1. intermittent:

stopping and starting at irregular intervals:intermittent rain

n. intermittency

  1. infrastruture:

the basic foundation or underlying framework of an organization or

In your house, the infrastructure is the system of beams,
weight-bearing walls and the foundation that keeps it standing.

Roads, bridges, and school buildings are part of our nation’s

  1. hydroelectric:of or relating to or used in the production of
    electricity by waterpower  <记念:hydro- 与水有关>

  2. doldrums

1)feeling sad or depressed

He’s been in the doldrums ever since she left him.

2)lack of activity:a slump in the economy

the economy remains in the doldrums

  1. So for now countries with lots of renewables need to keep older
    fossil-fuel capacity(ability to produce) available as a
    and to cover peaks in demand. This oftern means
    additional subsidies, known as electric capacity payments, for
    plants that would otherwise be uneconomic.

capacity payment:保持older generators





uneconomic:(of a business, factor, etc.)not making a profit

uneconomic industries

keep… as a standby/backup

  1. But they also mean that fossil-fuel production capacity clings
    — often in particular dirty forms, such as German power
    stations powered by brown coal, or backup diesel generators
    in Britain.

cling:to tightly grasp something or to stick closely to something

A scared child will cling to his parent, holding on tight

The dress clings to her body

brown coal:



1)a type of heavy oil used as a fuel 柴油:a diesel engine, diesel

2)a vehicle that uses diesel fuel 柴油车

3)diesel generator:the combination of a diesel engine with an
electric generator to generate electrical energy.

backup:extra assistance or help:call for backup

  1. From dull to death spiral

death spiral:扩张阅读

A type of loan investors give to a company in exchange for
convertible debt, which, like convertible bonds, typically
has provisions that allow investors to convert the bonds into stock at
below-market prices. This can cause the original share holders to lose
control of the company.

This type of loan is undertaken by companies that desperately need
cash. It is called a death spiral because companies’ stocks often
plunge drastically after they take on these types of loans. It is
important to note that death spirals often allow buyers to convert the
bonds into shares at a fixed conversion ratioin which the buyer has
a large

For example, a bond with a face value of $1,000 may have a convertible
value of $1,500, which means that a bond holder will receive $1,500
dollars worth of equity for giving up the $1,000 bond.

However, upon a conversion, more shares are created, which dilutes
the share price. This drop in price may cause more bond holders to
convert, because the lower share price means that they will be
receiving more shares. Any further conversions will cause more price
drops as the supply of shares increases, causing the process to repeat
itself as the stock’s price spirals downward.




n. an extra payment added to the basic rate

You have to pay a hign premium for express delivery.

adj. very high, of high quality:premium prices/products

2)equity:the value of a conpamy’s shares

3)dilute:lessen the strength or flavor of a mixture

dilute a strong drink to make it taste better

dilute heavy paint to get a lighter shade

31. When they are a small part of the system, renewables are
insulated from the effects that their low marginal costs have on

is insulated from:is protected from outside influences

They wonder if their community is no longer insulated from big city



After finding out that the stock market has collapsed and your
investments along with it, you’d probably collapse to the ground and
sob uncontrollably.


实体的倒塌:The wall/roof collapse.

人/动物累倒:sb collapsed to the ground/ on the sofa

失败,瓦解(比喻义):The business collapse.

Empires collapse after revolutions

价格下滑:wholesale electricity prices collapse

  1. think tank:a company that does research for hire and issues reports
    on the implications 智囊团

  2. vicious:a vicious circle恶性循环

1)violent and cruel:a vicious attack/criminal

2)intentionally harmful:spread vicious rumors about a person

3)very bad and severe:a vicious spiral of rising prices

  1. deployment:assigning people to serve in various locations (for a
    specific mission)

<military> 2000 troops were deployed in the area.

<non-military> a deployment of workers to a new office.

foster deployment of renewables

double their(rooftop renewable energy)deployment

  1. portfolio:

1)a large, flat briefcase used to hold papers and other loose
materials, like maps or artwork. A portfolio is usually used to
transport important documents

he remembered her because she was carrying a large portfolio.

2)Utilities which are required to have renewables in their portfolio

  1. as such utilities come closer to meeting their mandates,
    solar-power developers are being offered shorter-term fixed price with
    a higher subsequent exposure to
    (日后会遇上的情事) variable wholesale


1)gives authority to do sth

The election victory gave the party a clear mandate to continue
its programme of reform.

If the government gives schools a mandate to test more, then the
schools had better give more tests.

People who work for the Peace Corps have a mandate to help various
countries with things like getting clean drinking water.

such utilities come closer to meeting their mandates

  1. cannibalize:

1)to take parts of one machine to use in another, for example to
repair it.

They cannibalized damaged planes for the parts.

It becomes necessary to cannibalize unsuccessful projects to
those which can proceed.

2)to reduce the sales of one of its products by introducing a similar


cannibalises its own competitiveness away.= It eats its own tail.

  1. It is a fair bet that, the more renewables are exposed to
    comptition by contracts pegged to wholesale prices, the more people
    will shy away from them as well.


1)a short piece of wood, metal or plastic used for holding things
together, hanging things on, marking a position.

There is a peg near the door to hang your coat on.

2)v./n. fasten or pierce something with a peg

secure a tent by driving metal pegs(n.) into the ground to hold
it there.

peg(v.) her tent to the ground

All wet clothes were pegged out on the line.

3)fix or keep prices, wages at a particular level:peg st at/to sth

Pay increases will be pegged at 5%.

Uk trading profits were pegged at 40 million.

contracts pegged to wholesale prices.

4)v. to identify someone or something

I pegged you as a word lover.

shy away from sth:avoid doing sth because you are nervous or

He never shied away from his responsibilities.

The newspapers have shied away from investigating the story.

  1. Ever-lower capital costs, particularly in solar, could go some
    way to bucking this trend.

capital:the total amount of money (and things with a monetary value,
like houses or cars) that a person or institution owns.

A bank’s capital might be in the billions, while your capital
barely makes it into the hundreds.

capital cost:the total cost needed to bring a project to a
commercially operable status. They are fixed, one-time expenses
incureed on the purchase of land, buildings, construction, and
equipment used in the production of goods or in the rendering of

Capital costs do not include labor costs . Unlike operating costs,
capital costs are one-time expenses but payment may be spread out over
many years in financial reports and tax returns. Capital costs are
fixed and are therefore independent of the level of output.

buck:resist:buck the trend

If someone bucks the system, they’re pushing against it.

  1. incipent:means something is in an early stage of existence

It is important to note that when something is in an incipient
, there is a chance it will never come to completion. So be on
the lookout for incipient trouble or an incipient crisis — you
might be able to prevent it from happening.

faces an incipent “utility death spiral”:”death by a thousand cuts”

  1. icon:a symbol

1)a symbol

Click on the printer icon with the mouse.

There is an icon for the effect that …: it is called …

2)a famous person or thing that people admire and see as a symbol of
a particular idea, way of life and so on

In certain religions, statues of religious figures are referred to as
icons––because they are prayed to as if they were the thing they

Mahatma Gandhi is revered as an icon of peace and humanity, while
Adolf Hitler is reviled as an icon of violence and hatred.

  1. the “net metering” rate

<来自知网>net-metering  这其间meter作名词就有电衡量提示仪表的趣味

  1. precipitous

能够应用的限量很广:A sharp, steep drop — whether it’s in a stock
price, a roller coaster, or a star’s popularity — could be described
as a precipitous one.

The subsidies have helped costs of wind and solar to fall

  1. Recent auctions for 亚洲城误乐城ca88网站,offshore wind farms have shown developers
    slashing prices to win fixed contracts to supply clean electricity
    for decades to come.

offshore:(of winds) coming from the land:offshore breezes

happening or existing in the sea:offshore drilling,an offshore

  1. The “levellised cost of electricity” for renewables– the all-in
    of building and operationg a plant…

all-in cost:including the cost of all parts of sth

an all-in price of 500 dollars with no extras to pay

all-in health insurance 保健康全险

an all-in 5-day tour包蕴全部花销的三25日之旅

  1. they offer a potentially lucrative, subsidy-free investment

lucrative:producing a sizeable profit

The drug trade has proved very lucrative

  1. It only makes sense if this is a package deal(一揽子交易).
    Elements of that package are already appearing.

  2. commoditised(商品化的) kilowatt-hours

  3. Smart grids bolstered by big data will do more to keep demand
    in line with supply

bolster:improve sth or make it stronger

bolster one’s confidence/courage/morale

When you bolster your friends, you support them and prop them up.

When you’re trying to bolster your credibility, you find people
and/or documents that support you or your view.

Bolster efforts to learn this word!

Falling interest rates may help to bolster up the economy.

keep demand in line with supply


  1. For the last 100 years everyone has made money upstream. Now the
    added value is coming downstream.


upstream:the producers and the distributors

downstream:the cutomers

Usually you pay and spend money at downstream as a customer. But in
terms of utility, customers who install solar energy equipments are
saving and even making money by feeding energy back to the grid.


  1. Mr Huber likens the upheaval facing utilities to that seen
    in the telecoms indusrty a generation ago.

liken:When you liken one thing to another, you compare them and
point out what they have in common.


You could liken your experience at the dentist to torture, or
liken your dad’s skill at baking pies to that of Rembrandt painting a

Your grandmother might liken her romance with your grandfather to a
fairy tale
, and you could then liken the day you spent listening to
her stories to watching a long, dull movie.


1)a big change that causes a lot of confusion, worry and problems

the latest upheavals in the education system

You might talk about an upheaval in government following an election
where many incumbents(the official who holds an office) are

2)a rise of land to a higher elevation

the upheaval facing utilities

telecoms:systems used in transmitting messages over a distance

  1. always-on broadband:a method of sending many electric messages
    at the same time, using a wide range of frenquencies. 宽带

  2. This is bad news for the vertically integrated giants that grew
    up in the age of centralised generating by the gigawatt(十亿沃特t).

integrate:make parts of something into a whole,or one unit

After the decision to integrate the schools, students of all races
went to the same schools.

integrate a unit on thermodynamics into the curriculum

integrated:Integrated things are together

their records are integrated

education became integrated

centralized:adj. drawn toward a center or brought under the control
of a central authority

centralized control of emergency relief efforts

centralized government

  1. dozens of tech-like firms that are “nibblingaway at bits
    of utilities’ traditional business models through innovations in
    grid optimisation and smart-home managment systems.

nibble:to eat in tiny bites

If you nibble your chocolate chip cookie while your sister
gobbles(eat hastily without proper chewing) hers quickly

nibble away at:take away small amounts of sth, so that the total
amount is gradually reduced 蚕食

Inflation is nibbling away at spending power

optimisation:the act of rendering optimal最优化

  1. the “big beyond” in which domestic energy autonomy, the use of
    the blockchain in energy contracts, and crowdsourcing of PV
    installations and other technological disruptions doom the traditional










  1. digitalise domestic energy, with home-hubs and thermostats

home hub:a family of wireless residential gateway router(路由器)
modems distributed by BT for use with their own products and services
as well as wholesale resellers.

thermostat:a device that measures and controls the temperature of a
machine or room, by switching the heating or cooling system on and off
as necessary.

  1. they scream blue murder then the ights go out.

scream/cry blue murder:大喊大叫

blue murder:

  1. That suggests progress may be slow and fitful. And it is
    possible that it could stall, leaving climate risks largely

fitful:happening only for short periods, not continuous and regular

I had a fitful night’s sleep: I woke up several times throughout the

I’ve made only fitful progress trying to lose weight, because I lose
only a few pounds at a time, and they almost always come right back.

The government is making slow and fitful progress in these


1)to stop or delay

If your car stalls, it comes to a stop.

the peace progress stalled

2)to avoid doing sth so that you have more time 拖延

Your little sister can stall going to bed by asking for one more

3)If you stall someone, you prevent them from doing something until a
later time

You can stall your professor from giving an exam by talking about
last night’s big game.

unabated:continuing at full strength or intensity

the winds are unabated

the popularity of his books among young people continued unabated

his unabated enthusiasm for cinema

  1. lay waste to 糟蹋,损坏:

They did not expect the invaders to lay waste to their

A nuclear holocaust can lay waste to the world.

The enemy lay waste to the countryside after the invasion.

lay waste the world’s conventional electricity utilities

Day 9 思维图

亚洲城误乐城ca88网站 1

Day 10-11 Summary


How to structure the mindmap?

亚洲城误乐城ca88网站 2


亚洲城误乐城ca88网站 3



The passage explains the progress of a problem– how the renewable
energy eats its own tail– in multiple stages from more than two

The passage is so complicated-structured, so we need first list the
repeated elements whose basic relationship remains same on different
stages. They are the government, renewable producers, the grid
electricity, customers, and old generators like fossil fuel generators.
The government subsidies for investment in renewable producers, who
supply electricity to the grid electricity and get paid. The grid
electricity likens to the executer who can charge prices, deliver
electricities to households and give out contracts based on the profits
they can make.

So how the seemingly promising renewable energy becomes a worsening
problem? With no carbon emssion, low maintainence cost, and low marginal
cost, renewable producers increased their penetration in the market. As
a competitive energy, they push the old expensive producers off the
market, and drag down the wholesale electricity price. With a large
quantity of renewable generators in the market, more and more money are
needed to pay for their capacity, while they get less and less capital
to keep running, therefore falling into the trap they made for

2)Annie对词汇和句式的任课,一些互补到了Day 8的笔记里,一些在以下总结:

1)finance v.s. fund

finance:provide capital and usually expect a return

finance intial capital to start a ongoing business which is likely
to come back to benefit you

The building project will be financed by the government.

fund:give the money for free and don’t expect any profits in return

finance you son’s study

He took a job to finance his stay in Germany.

fund your son’s study:给钱的经过


The cows on the green fields produce manure that generates
biogas which warms the Biergarten, the sports hall and many of the
houses where the 2600 villagers live, as well as backing up the wind
and solar generators in winter



3)All told, the village produces five time more electricity than it

all told是with all that is told/all being

all told:with everything included or counted

His crew was reduced to twenty-four all told.

So far there have been fourteen arrests all told.

4)be handsomely rewarded for their greeness

handsome:in a large amount

a handsome profit

5)the fight against climate change has seen huge growth in the
“new” renewables.

see:witness event

Next year sees the centenary of Verdi’s death.

This stadium has seen many thrilling football games.

6)<口语> Way to go! =Well done!

go a long/some way to/towards doing sth:help very much in achieving sth

The new law goes a long way towards solving the problem.

electricity grids redesigned for systems with a lot of renewable energy
could go a long way to solving this probelm

Ever-lower capital costs, particularly in solar, could go some way
bucking this trend


8)Robust carbon prices would give renewables further advantages,
but they have as yet proved hard to provide.

carbon price:

the method favored by many economists for reducing global-warming
emissions — charges those who emit carbon dioxide for their


The promotion proved to be a turning point in his career.

Shares in the industry proved a poor investment.

9)pursuade sb of the benefits of …

10)witness n.见证人 a witness to the accident


This suggests that their growth might soon need a lot less subsidy
than(省略that,指代subsidy) it has attracted to date.

But pushing renewables into the electricity market has had effects
on (省略things)more than their price.

12)split in two 分成两半

split in half 分成相同的两份

13)倒装:Never in recent history has the deployment of capital been
more difficult than it is right now within the energy industry.

把关键的动词(has)换来主语(the deployment of capital)前面


The deployment of capital has never been more difficult than it is right